CASLAR Journal: Volume 1, Issue 1 (July 2012)

http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/caslar.2012.1.issue-1/issue-files/caslar.2012.1.issue-1.xml

Aspectual marking among English and Korean learners of Mandarin Chinese

Wai Lan Tsang

Abstract: The present study reports on a small-scale investigation of Mandarin aspectual marking among two groups of pre-intermediate learners of Mandarin Chinese: native English speakers and native Korean speakers. The use of -le, -guo, and -zhe in the learners' written work was examined, with particular attention to three variables: (i) overall frequency of aspectual marking, (ii) frequency of occurrence of each marker, and (iii) interaction between these markers and situation types (Smith 1997). The learners' patterns were also compared with those of a group of native Mandarin speakers and analysed in terms of the postulates of the Aspect Hypothesis (Andersen & Shirai 1996, Bardovi-Harlig 2000). The overall analysis discerned both similarities and differences in the usage of the three markers among the learners. Such patterns are likely to be related to the distinctive nature of the markers, type of genre, the learners' L1 aspectual systems, and classroom/textbook input. 

 

The gap between the perception and production of tones by American learners of Mandarin – An intralingual perspective

Bei Yang

Abstract: Linguists have predominantly maintained that perception precedes production (Dinnsen 1983), an assertion also accepted by those studying second language acquisition (Flege 1995). However, an observation of acquisition of tones in Chinese as a second language suggests that American learners make different tonal mistakes in perception and production. This study explores tonal perception and production referring to the sound system of Mandarin, since a tone has a close relationship with an initial that is an onset and a final that is a rhyme within a syllable in Mandarin. The research instrument has 84 monosyllables that are representative according to the relationship among initials, finals and tones. Twenty-five American learners of Chinese in second-semester Chinese class and 11 learners of Chinese in fourth-semester Chinese class participated in this study. A two-way mixed ANOVA is the main statistical method used to analyze the acquisition data. The results reveal that tonal production is better than tonal perception. The error distribution of perception is influenced not only by tonal features, but also by initial features and final structures. For production, however, initial and final features do not influence tones. Therefore, the paper argues that tones are perceived at the phonological level and produced at the phonetic level and it takes L2 learners longer time to acquire phonological features of tones.

 

A study of situation-bound utterances in Modern Chinese

Hong-hui Zhou

Abstract: Situation-Bound Utterances (SBUs), as a typical kind of idiomatic expression, have been well studied mainly in English, but to date have been little studied in Mandarin. What are the unique characteristics of Mandarin SBUs? What lies behind this uniqueness? To answer these questions requires uncovering the psychological reality of SBUs among Mandarin speakers and filtering out samples based on a clear definition. In this study, the socio-cognitive approach is taken. This approach synthesizes the advantages of a pragmatic and cognitive view of language communication in which concept and lexicon are viewed as two inter-related but mutually independent entities. SBUs act as an appropriate tangent point to illustrate the relationship between concepts and linguistic forms. Under such a perspective, the study of Mandarin SBUs in this paper will reinforce and complement the cognition of this unique linguistic phenomenon. This paper first defines SBUs according to certain maxims and then demonstrates various kinds of idiomatic expressions in Mandarin and clarifies the relationships among these expressions and SBUs. Thirty samples are filtered out through three approaches: individual reflection, collective contribution and reference consulting. The paper then sets three tests to confirm and reconfirm the selected thirty quasi-SBUs. Finally, following a discussion of Mandarin SBUs vis-à-vis linguistic form, language policy and social-cultural factors, conclusions are posited as to why Mandarin SBUs are somewhat different from their English counterparts.

论“虚实象似”原理*—韵律和语法之间的扭曲对应

沈家煊

提要:为了解释汉语的韵律结构和语法结构之间的对应关系,已有的研究提出两条原理,“轻重象似”和“松紧象似”。本文建议用“虚实象似”把上述两条原理统一起来,并且着重阐明这种象似是“扭曲对应”关系。这样做的好处是,使解释变得更加简单和充分,说明汉语和印欧语之间的异同,对构建一般语言理论也有重要意义。

关键词: 韵律;语法;虚实象似;扭曲对应

 

汉语二语习得中介词的词类属性及其认知机制

方环海

提要:对外汉语教学的语法体系中,介词与动词的关系问题一直是争论的焦点,以往研究者对动词与介词的词类属性关系研究取得很大进展,但是介词能否成为一个独立的词类范畴,争议很大。文章从韵律句法学和轻动词理论的视角进行探讨,认为动词后的介词需要并入前面的动词,句子才会合法,动词前面的介词基本都具有实现轻动词的句法功能,从而在语言学理论上实现对介词的词类属性的词法与句法的解释。为了在语言的内在认知心理加工上说明介词的加工机制,文章还从认知科学角度设计了认知科学实验,实验研究发现动词与介词无论在语义还是语法上均没有显著差异,显示大脑的认知加工没有显著差异。通过理论与实验两个方面的分析,文章认为介词仍应处理为动词的一个次类,对汉语作为二语的教学与研究领域而言,语言科学的理论推演与认知科学的实验验证,二者缺一不可。

关键词: 二语习得;现代汉语;介词;动词;认知机制

 

从学习者偏误看汉语程度副词的教学

刘振平 杨延宁

提要:本文从汉语学习者的真实偏误入手,探讨汉语程度副词的教学重点。文章检索汉语学习者中介语语料库,提取已有研究成果中的示例,搜集整理了以汉语作为第二语言学习过程中常用程度副词的偏误,并归纳了有关偏误的12个主要类型。通过偏误分析,找出了以汉语作为第二语言的学习者没有完全掌握的知识点,进而确定了需进一步加强教学的内容。

关键词: 程度副词;汉语教学;偏误分析;中介语语料库