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L2 acquisition of the progressive marker zai in Mandarin Chinese

Feng-hsi Liu

Abstract:

Two studies on L2 acquisition of the progressive marker zai in Mandarin Chinese by native English speakers were conducted to investigate the interaction between L1 influence and the congruence of lexical aspect and tense-aspect morphology, as formulated in the aspect hypothesis. The two factors make opposite predictions with respect to the early stage and the acquisition process. The findings from a judgment task and a production task show that the observed pattern is neither predicted by the aspect hypothesis alone nor entirely conditioned by L1 influence. Rather, it is the result of both forces at work. At the early stage zai is associated with activities and accomplishments involving goal or distance. In the acquisition process, both widening and narrowing of predicate types are observed. The findings also show that the L1 effect does not disappear at the same time, but proceeds in stages. In the case of zai marking, the L1 effect weakening process is governed by the strength of event ending that is part of the meaning of the predicates.

Keywords: Mandarin Chinese; aspect; progressive; L1 influence; aspect hypothesis

 

 A study on Chinese-character learning strategies and character learning performance among American learners of Chinese

Ko-Yin Sung

Abstract:

This study investigated Chinese-character learning strategies employed by 74 first-year American college learners of Chinese. This study attempted to answer the following research questions: (1) what Chinese-character learning strategies are most frequently used by first-year Chinese language learners?; (2) what are the factors underlying the most frequently used strategies?; and (3) are there any linear trends between the most frequently used strategies and character learning performance?. The results found seven most frequently used strategies. Furthermore, four of these strategies were stroke-orthographic-knowledge-based while the remaining three were phonological-semantics-knowledge-based. The stroke-orthographic-knowledge-based strategies accounted for 6.8% of the learners' character learning performance.

Keywords: Chinese Writing; Chinese-Character Learning Strategies; Chinese-Character Learning Performance

 

 When in China, do as the Chinese do? Learning compliment responding in a study abroad program

Li Jin

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of English-speaking students studying abroad in China. Whether these students can learn and reflect in their behaviors certain uniquely Chinese-style speech acts during their sojourn in China merits investigation. This paper reports on a case study investigating what and how four American university-level students developed knowledge and skills of compliment responding in Mandarin Chinese when they were participating in an 8-week intensive summer language program in Shanghai. Among the four participants, two were from a 2nd-year Mandarin Chinese class and two from a 3rd-year class. The qualitative data were collected from one pre-study questionnaire, weekly semi-structured interviews (a total of 6 for each participant), participants' weekly reflective blogs, and the researcher's observation of participants' social interaction with native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. The results showed that despite their similar academic, linguistic, and cultural background, each participant experienced a heterogeneous and dynamic developmental process and developed different awareness and skills of compliment responding in Mandarin Chinese throughout the study abroad program. The researcher discussed how each participant's agency and individual social interaction with native speakers of Mandarin Chinese as well as local Chinese residents' socialization efforts during the study abroad program intertwiningly shaped what and how the participants learned about Mandarin Chinese compliment responding strategies.

Keywords: study abroad; Mandarin Chinese compliment responding strategies; agency; socialization; social interaction

 

 汉语的主观情态和客观情态

利贞/彭,翼斌/刘

提要:

在情态研究中,对主观情态与客观情态的区别的认识远非清楚。现代汉语的情态表达,从如下方面表现出主观与客观的区别:(一)不同类型情态的情态动词连续同现遵循的EDD规则,体现了不同类型的情态之间主观与客观的区别,它要求主观性强的情态类型先于主观性弱的情态类型排列。(二)表达同义情态的两个情态动词的同现,原因在于它们表达的情态存在主观和客观的区别,两个同义情态动词同现时,主观情态先于客观情态。(三)表达同义情态的不同情态构式存在功能上的差别,原因也在于它们表达的同义情态存在主观与客观的差别。(四)出于语用目的,现代汉语存在大量的情态客观化表达,说明主观情态与客观情态的区别存在语用动因。

关键词: 情态;主观;客观;客观化;情态动词;同现;汉语

 

 加拿大大学生汉语语音成功习得策略—兼论语言习得关键期假说

丽芳/何

提要:

本文以笔者所任教的加拿大大学生为研究对象,首先对超过语言习得“关键期”的学习者能够获得母语一样的语音进行验证,然后探讨成年学习者学习汉语语音的成功学习策略。本文的研究证实,成年人若使用适当的学习策略,就能够成功获得标准的现代汉语语音。成功的学习者都有较强的学习动机和主动学习的意识,而学习策略则是学生主动学习的一个工具。同样的课堂教学及教材教法,不同学习者理解、记忆直至获得目的语语音所采用的学习计划安排,及使用的途径方法等有所不同,甚至有明显的差别。在不同的场合情景下选择使用相应的学习策略,能够调动学生的组织能力和自我监控意识,让学生使用已有的知识解决学习中的新问题,通过与同学老师或汉语为母语者的互动,提高语音水平,进而帮助学生完成学习任务实现学习目标。

关键词: 关键期;汉语;语音;习得;学习策略

 

 汉语教材词语注解中文化因素的呈现

明/赵

提要:

语言与文化相融的特性决定了汉语教材中词语注解也具有跨文化属性。通过对目前较典型的中级汉语教材的分析发现,目前汉语教材的词语注解中存在着忽略词语的文化意义、文化意义呈现不够充分或未能提供与文化有关的例证等问题。这些问题的出现,原因主要在于忽略文化层级性、忽视文化意义的隐含性和教材编者主体的失误。要解决这些问题,汉语教材词语注解涉及文化因素时则应遵循“适度、有效、优先、多维”的原则,也在多个方面还存在可完善和改进之处。

关键词: 汉语教材;词语注解;文化因素

 

 

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