Identification of Mandarin coarticulated tones by inexperienced and experienced English learners of Mandarin
Yunjuan He/ Ratree Wayland
Abstract: Two groups of native English speakers, relatively inexperienced (N = 14) with 3 months of Mandarin study and relatively more experienced (N = 14) with 12 months of study, were asked to identify coarticulated Mandarin lexical tones in disyllabic words. The results show that 1) the experienced learners were better at identifying Mandarin tones than the inexperienced learners, 2) Tones in coarticulation were more difficult to identify than tones in isolation, 3) tonal context and syllable position affected tonal perception, and 4) experienced learners committed fewer tonal direction errors than inexperienced learners. However, experienced learners still made a considerable amount of tonal height errors.
Keywords: perception; Mandarin tones; language experience; tonal context
Production of formulaic expressions in L2 Chinese: A developmental investigation in a study abroad context
Naoko Taguchi / Shuai Li / Feng Xiao
Abstract: This study investigated the development of L2 Chinese formulaic competence in a study abroad context. Participants were 31 American students studying Chinese in a university in China (intermediate-level). They completed a computerized speaking test consisting of 24 formulae-use situations twice during their semester-long study abroad in China. The learners produced a formulaic expression according to each situation, and their production was evaluated on appropriateness (rated on a four-point scale by native speakers) and planning time. In addition, a survey was administered to gather information about the learners' perceived frequency of encounter with formulae-use situations. The learners showed significant gains on appropriateness and fluency. Reported frequency of encounter with target formulae-use situations did not correlate with the gains in formulae production, except for the learners with lower pretest score. Qualitative analysis revealed four patterns of change: (1) change toward target formulae, (2) change toward target-like slot-and-frame patterns, (3) change toward non-target formulae; and (4) stabilized non-target formulae use.
Keywords: L2 Chinese; formulaic competence; formulae production; interlanguage pragmatics; study abroad context;longitudinal
Target language use by teachers co-teaching tomorrow's teachers of Chinese
Jane Medwell / Katherine Richardson / Li Li
Abstract: This paper reports an exploratory study of a Native Speaker Teacher (NST) of Mandarin Chinese and a Primary Languages Teacher (PLT) teaching Chinese to English pre-service primary school teachers, and is particularly focused on the use of target language (TL) by these two co-teachers.
Although some studies of TL use have compared the use of target language by native and non-native speakers teaching individually, there are no studies which examine target language use in a native and non-native co-teaching situation, or relate this to the background experience of the teachers. The data collected in this study included observations of planning meetings between both teachers, observations of the teaching of the program, and interviews with both teachers.
This paper focuses upon the use of target language by the Chinese Native speaker teacher (NST) and the English Primary Languages Teacher (PLT) and the ways in which this changed and developed across the teaching sessions, as well as the relationship between their TL use, background and beliefs about language teaching in the program. Findings of this study show that, even in a co-teaching situation, target language use by the native speaker teacher and the primary languages teacher differed substantially in terms of their practices of and their beliefs about use of target language, and both were influenced by their own cultures of learning. The results also suggest that working together changed the teaching behavior of both teachers and enabled them to reflect critically on their prior assumptions.
Keywords: target language; native speakers; co-teaching
曾金金/ 紀壽惠 / 黃立己
提要：由於漢字的內部結構複雜，但部首卻有一定的認知規律可循，因此，部首教學就成為漢字教學導入的一大利器。因此，本研究進行以認知學習理論為基礎的部首多媒體教學設計，考量學習者的認知負擔，以寓教於樂的方式，袪除對漢字的畏懼感，有效建立學習者的部首意識。由於部首對於絕大多數初學漢字的學習者是一個全新的概念建構，我們要從功能類比部首是相當於印歐語系(Indo-European family) 文字的字根 (base word) 概念，是帶有主要語義成分的最小單位。本文統計視聽華語（一）（二）冊教材中的614個生字之部首頻率，再對照常用字頻部首頻率，並參酌黃沛榮 (2001) 從漢字的辨識、書寫與使用三個角度來評估部首的學習價值，綜合列出100個具有優先學習價值的部首，作為多媒體教學設計之主要範疇。規劃出符合五項認知歷程的單元教學，包括：（一）直觀圖形，聯結形符。（二）解構字碼，凝聚概念。（三）鞏固部首位置及組合結構，加強形近辨識。（四）語義彙整，加強義近區辨。（五）綜合運用，融會貫通。
關鍵詞: 漢字認知; 象形字; 零組件; 形符; 意符; 部首教學; 多媒體教材設計
关键词: 动机; 动机变化; 动机变化成因; 汉语作为第二语言
提要：Atran (1990) 相信植物名稱是拿來形容人或社會通用的喻依 (vehicle)。本文旨在觀察漢語和德語的『菜』和『蘋果』固定語式的語意出發點，再綜合討論其他植物語式，最後我們統計所討論的語式資料，比較漢、德語在植物固定語式上造詞的不同觀察點。Lakoff & Turner (1989) 等人所提出的語意出發點是本文的研究理論基礎，語料乃從字典、辭典、文獻、和媒體中搜集而得。研究比較後顯示，同樣有【普通易得的食材】這個語意出發點，在德語是『蘋果』，在漢語則是『菜』。從德語的Apfel [蘋果]語式中我們看到蘋果在德國人心目中的普遍性和重要性，從其形狀、果肉、作為食品、飼料、農業特色、成熟後掉落地面、到腐爛等方面皆是入詞的參考。德語的Gemüse [菜]和漢語的『菜』語意相差甚多；在德語是名詞，在漢語多半為形容詞。德語Gemüse [菜]常用來代指＜人＞，漢語的『菜』則常是＜食物＞的統稱。漢語和德語從外型、可食性、可用性、或是農耕與生長特色的語意出發點，有相同或不同的分佈比例。植物固定語式這種生命體詞彙是語言使用者表詞達意的良好利器。透過外語學習者的角度來探究語意出發點，比較漢語和德語，更能切實的看到語言的核心和實用的面向，對漢語學習有所助益。
關鍵詞: 植物固定語式; 生命體詞彙; 語意出發點; 跨語言比較; 菜; 蘋果