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A measure of Chinese language learning anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation

Han Luo

Abstract: As the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), the most widely used measure for foreign language anxiety, is a generic instrument that mainly addresses speaking anxiety and does not take into consideration of the characteristics of target languages, this study attempts to develop a Chinese Language Learning Anxiety Scale reflective of anxieties associated with the four skills. The initial pool of items approved by five experts were administered to 447 Chinese language learners from two large public universities in the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor solution of the scale, i.e., Speaking Anxiety, Listening Anxiety, and Reading & Writing Anxiety, lending support to the construct validity of the scale. Results of reliability analysis and correlation analyses indicated that the Chinese Language Learning Anxiety Scale and its three sub-scales have good internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity.

Keywords: Chinese as a foreign language (CFL); Chinese language learning anxiety; foreign language anxiety; scale development 

 

The interactional achievements of repair and correction in a Mandarin language classroom

Tsui-Ping Cheng

Abstract: This study examines the different interactional achievements of repair and correction in a Mandarin language classroom from a conversation analysis perspective. The sequential analysis of teacher-initiated repair and correction shows that while repair indicates participants' relative epistemic stance and makes visible the contingent process of securing intersubjectivity, correction serves to monitor students' language production and accomplish teaching. By means of various repair practices, teacher and students are able to maintain and restore a shared understanding of the instructional activity that they are doing together. This intersubjectivity is the foundation upon which a space for teaching and learning is created, maintained, and defended. In correction sequences, the practices of repetition and overlap underscore teacher and students' alignment with a pedagogical focus of linguistic accuracy and make relevant their situated institutional identities. Regardless of the distinctive achievements in interaction, repair and correction are both practical resources that enable and sustain classroom instruction.

Keywords: conversation analysis; repair; correction; Mandarin pedagogy 

 

Factors accounting for acquisition of polysemous shàng ‘to go up’-phrases in Chinese as a second language (CSL)

Haiyan Liang

Abstract: This study looks into how factors such as Chinese L1 prototypicality, imageability, concreteness, literalness and frequency account for Chinese L2 acquisition of polysemous shàng ‘to go up’-phrases. As the first step, Chinese L1 speakers (N = 92) were instructed to produce five sentences with the verb shàng ‘to go up’. The production prototypicality pattern was achieved. This led to the selection of a list of 20 test items. In the second step the list of items were used to measure Chinese L2 learners' acquisition of them with a translation task (N = 96). Following this another four independent groups of Chinese L1 participants were asked to rank the test items according to their perceptions of teaching sequence in CSL (N = 95) and rate them based on their perceptions of imageability (N = 68), concreteness (N = 52) and literalness (N = 63). The same set of data was also checked in two Chinese corpora for the objective frequency in language use. The analyses indicate that L1 perceptions are reliable in predicting the acquisition sequence of the target shàng-phrases in CSL. The sequence correlates significantly with the prototypicality patterns but not with concreteness, imageability or literalness rating patterns. No conclusion, however, can be drawn about how objective frequency in corpora contributes to the acquisition pattern because of discrepancy between the two corpora. The results of the study support the cognitive reality of prototypicality and have implications for prototypicality-based L2 research and teaching practice.

Keywords: second language acquisition; Chinese; polysemy; phrase; prototypicality; frequency 

 

汉语和日语听觉反馈声学特点及语言认知习得能力—基于噪声 (Lombard) 听觉反馈条件实验研究

以中 徐 / 亦鸣 杨

提要:元认知是对认知的认知,语言元认知能力体现为说话人对自身言语行为的自我监控,在心理语言学中属于言语听觉反馈现象。本文基于噪声 (Lombard) 条件的听觉反馈实验,考察了操汉语和日语者的言语发声特点及其所反映的认知心理机制。统计结果揭示:一、噪声对话语语速和音高的影响不显著但对音强的影响非常显著;这个结果也验证了赵元任先生提出的“汉语音高可以区别词义使得汉语在噪声传播中是一个优点”的观点;二、语义和语境因素对音强和音高变化的影响具有显著意义;三、汉日两种语言被试在语言元认知能力上既有普遍性又有差异性。总之,开展言语听觉反馈研究对于揭示语言认知和习得机制具有重要意义。

关键词:噪声 (Lombard); 听觉反馈; 认知能力; 语言习得

 

“V+向”结构的词汇化与介词并入

耀华 罗/ 黎 贺

提要:本文着重分析了“V+向”类结构的词汇化,并从介词并入角度进行了跨语言的比较。“向”经历了由动转介的语法化过程,介词“向”萌芽于两汉,到魏晋南北朝完成介词化,到唐五代时期,“向”的介词功能最终确定并且稳固下来,完成了向介词演变的漫长的语法化道路。通过介词并入,“V+向”结构也经历了词汇化过程,互信息值计算和语感调查的结果都表明“V+向”词汇化程度比较高,是典型的介词并入现象。“V+向”类结构融合度的高低,与三个因素有关,即“V”、“向”、“O”的类型及其互动有关,“V”对“向”、“O”具有选择性,“O”对“V”具有反作用。根据介词并入相关理论对其他语言的考察表明,介词并入在其他语言中也存在。汉语的“V+向”结构中的“向”通过介词并入,“向”并入动词,在原来的空位留下一个语迹。这是形式上的并入,也是句法-语义上的并入。介词“向”并入,是词汇化的手段之一,其前提是“向”的语法化的完成。

关键词: “V+向”; 向; 介词并入; 语法化; 词汇化

 

述宾黏合结构和定中黏合结构的单双音组配问题

学凤 应

提要:本文认为1+2和2+1并不分别对应着“松”和“紧”,两者不是一一对应关系,1+2和2+1不是镜像关系,2+1的“1”具有粘附性,但1+2的“1”并不意味着有分离性,只是相对2+1来说,1+2结合得更为松散,这个松散就有程度的差异,有可能是仅仅比2+1松,但总体还是比较紧,也有可能确实就是很松。基于这样的事实提出:2+1是“重轻模式”,1+2不是“轻重模式”,而是“中重模式”。我们提出,音节组合1+2和2+1与结构、语义之间是一种扭曲对应关系,利用这个扭曲关系可以解释述宾黏合结构单双音节组配规律和定中黏合结构单双音节组配规律。

关键词: 黏合结构; 述宾结构; 定中结构; 单双音节; 韵律; 语义; 语体

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