CASLAR Journal: Volume 5, Issue 2 (Oct 2016) 2016年第5卷第2期
Papers in English
Processing Chinese relative clauses: An investigation of second-language learners from different learning contexts
The goal of this study is to examine the processing of Chinese relative clauses (RCs) through a self-paced reading task and to determine whether the learning environment plays a role in the second-language (L2) acquisition of RCs. We investigated two types of RCs (subject vs. object RCs) along with two positions in which a RC can occur (modifying a matrix subject noun phrase [NP] vs. a matrix object NP). Eighteen native speakers of Chinese and twenty-one L2 learners at an intermediate proficiency level participated in the study. Ten learners were students learning Chinese in the US (i. e., in a foreign-language context), whereas the other eleven learners were students studying Chinese in China (i. e., in a study-abroad context). The comprehension of sentences containing a RC and reading times (RTs) on the RC and the head noun (the segment immediately following the RC) were analyzed. The results show distinct patterns for the learners and the native speakers. The accuracy data reveals that the L2 learners in China performed better than the L2 learners in the US. Additionally, the L2 learners in China exhibited a processing speed advantage to the L2 learners in the US. The RT data highlighted important asymmetries in the L2 learners in the US and the native speakers, while the results were flat for the L2 learners in China. Specifically, L2 learners in the US took longer to read object RCs than subject RCs while the opposite pattern was obtained for the L1 speakers. Moreover, matrix-object-modifying RCs revealed shorter RTs than matrix-subject-modifying RCs for L2 learners in the US, whereas the opposite pattern was found for the L1 speakers. These findings are discussed in light of the Linear Distance Theory and the Structural Distance Theory (e. g., O’Grady 1997. Syntactic development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press). Overall, these results seem to provide support to the assumption that changes in syntactic processing happen as a result of exposure to the language environment (Cuetos et al. 1996. Parsing in different languages. In Manuel Carreias, Jose E. Garcia-Albea & Nuria Sebastien-Galles (eds.), Language processing in Spanish, 145–187. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Frenck–Mestre 2002. An on-line look at sentence processing in the second language. In Roberto Heredia & Jeanette Altarriba (eds.), Bilingual sentence processing, 217–236. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.).
本文的研究目的是通过自定步速阅读任务来检测阅读者对中文定语从句的处理，以及探索学习环境在定语从句二语习得中的作用。本文主要研究主语定语从句和宾语定语从句两种句式，并同时探讨定语从句在主句中所处的位置(修饰主句的主语名词短语或修饰主句的宾语名词短语)对阅读产生的影响。18名中文母语者和21名中级水平的中文二语学习者参加了实验，其中10名学习者是在美国学中文的学生(外语环境)，而另外11名学习者是在中国学习中文的学生(留学环境)。研究者将被试者对包含定语从句的句子的理解，以及他们阅读定语从句和中心名词(紧跟在定语从句后面的成分)的时间进行了分析，发现学习者和母语者表现出不同的阅读模式。在中国的二语学习者在阅读理解准确度上比在美国的二语学习者表现好，并且在处理速度上有优势。在美国的二语学习者和中文母语者在阅读速度上有对比性的显著结果，而在中国的二语学习者在此方面的数据结果却不显著。具体来说，在美国的二语学习者读宾语定语从句的时间比读主语定语从句的时间长，而母语者却相反。此外，在美国的二语学习者读修饰主句宾语的定语从句比读修饰主句主语的定语从句更快，但母语者在相关方面的表现也是相反的。研究者从线性距离理论 和结构距离理论 (e. g. O’Grady 1997. Syntactic development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.) 的角度来讨论这些结果。总的来说，研究结果似乎为前人的假设提供了支持，即所处语言环境的不同会影响句法的处理 (Cuetos et al. 1996. Parsing in different languages. In Manuel Carreias, Jose E. Garcia-Albea & Nuria Sebastien-Galles (eds.), Language processing in Spanish, 145–187. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Frenck-Mestre 2002. An on-line look at sentence processing in the second language. In Roberto Heredia & Jeanette Altarriba (eds.), Bilingual sentence processing, 217–236. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.)。
Keywords: Chinese relative clause; sentence processing; learning context; study abroad
关键词: 中文定语从句; 句子处理; 学习环境; 海外学习
The use of situation-bound utterances in Chinese foreign language textbooks
This article examines the use of situation-bound utterances (qíngjìng zhuānyòngyǔ 情境专用语) in five mainstream Chinese foreign language textbooks in order to survey, categorize, and discuss their use therein. Kecskes (2000a. A cognitive-pragmatic approach to situation-bound utterances. Journal of Pragmatics 32(5). 605–625) defined Situation-bound utterances (hereafter SBUs) as “highly conventionalized, prefabricated pragmatic units whose occurrences are tied to standardized communicative situations” (2000a: 606). SBUs are prevalent in Modern Chinese and in several ways represent Chinese culture. Many Chinese foreign language textbooks, however, underestimate the importance of SBUs. Based on information culled from five textbooks (Integrated Chinese 中文听说读写, First Step 中文起步, Basic Spoken Chinese 基础中文：听与说, Practical Audio-Visual Chinese 实用视听华语, and New Practical Chinese Reader 新实用汉语) a Chinese SBUs database has been generated. One hundred seventy-eight Chinese SBUs are identified, and they are categorized into ten speech act categories. Among these, the three most common speech acts are: (1) greetings/daily conversation, (2) polite request, and (3) inquiry. These speech acts represent and reflect the concept and practice of politeness in Chinese culture. Basic Spoken Chinese provides the most detailed and clearest explanations of SBUs, and explains the most appropriate contexts for use of SBUs. As for repeated use of SBUs, both Basic Spoken Chinese and Integrated Chinese outperformed the other textbooks. None of the textbooks examined, however, adequately explain the use and importance of SBUs in Modern Chinese. The purpose of this study is to fill this lacuna.
本文旨在探讨华语教学的主流教材如何呈现及探讨情境专用语 (Situation-Bound Utterances)，并将之融入教材中。口语中均有许多丰富的情境专用语，正是反应语言文化的一个重要面向。可惜，许多华语教材低估了情境专用语的重要性。笔者分析了市面上五大主流教材：中文听说读写 (Integrated Chinese) 、中文起步 (First Step) 、基础中文：听与说 (Basic Spoken Chinese) 、实用视听华语 (Practical Audio-Visual Chinese) 与新实用汉语 (New Practical Chinese Reader)，并建立了情境专用语的资料库， 集结了178个情境专用语。本文归结出基础中文：听与说 (Basic Spoken Chinese) 在解释情境专用语、 提供中英对照分析，领先于其它的四本教材。而就反覆强化情境专用语的方面来看，最突出的两本教材分别是基础中文： 听与说 (Basic Spoken Chinese) 和中文听说读写 (Integrated Chinese)。然而目前坊间仍遍寻不着情境专用语的教材，笔者冀望藉由本文的分析，能促使教材编纂者正视情境专用语的在语言学习上的实用性与必需性。
Keywords: Situation-bound utterance; (qíngjìng zhuānyòngyǔ) 情境专用语; speech acts; textbook analysis
关键字: 情境专用语; 华语教学教材分析; 对外汉语教学教材分析
A comparative study on learning strategies used by Australian CFL and Chinese EFL learners
This study compared language learning strategies used by Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners in Australia and English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in China through Oxford’s (1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire survey. Two cohorts of learners, namely Australian CFL learners (N=101) and Chinese EFL learners (N=100), participated in this study. It was found that the most frequently used strategies by the Chinese EFL learners were compensation strategies and the least frequently used strategies were memory strategies while the most frequently used strategies by the Australian CFL learners were social strategies and the least frequently used strategies were affective strategies. Australian female learners used slightly more strategies than male learners, but no difference was found in the strategies used by the Chinese EFL male and female learners. No significant difference was found either in the strategies used by learners of different grade levels, regardless of whether they were Chinese EFL or Australian CFL learners. Scores of some individual categories significantly differed between the three levels of the Australian CFL learners and the four levels of the Chinese EFL learners. In general the Chinese EFL learners used more strategies when compared with those used by the Australian CFL learners. Pedagogical implications of the findings were also discussed. This study contributes to the research in language learning strategies in that it considers the typological distance between learners’ L1 and the target language for the first time. It also has clarified the seemingly inconsistent findings in the literature in terms of memory strategies use by Asian learners (Chinese learners in this case): when compared with other categories of strategies, memory strategies were used the least frequently by the Chinese EFL learners; when compared with learners from other cultural backgrounds such as the Australian or American, the Chinese EFL learners used memory strategies more frequently.
本文比较了澳大利亚汉语作为外语学习者与中国英语作为外语学习者所使用的语言学习策略。其研究方法是使用 Rebecca Oxford 1990 年创建的最全面、最具影响力的语言学习策略分类模式——语言学习策略量表(SILL)进行问卷调查，参加问卷调查的两组被试分别是澳大利亚的汉语作为外语学习者101人和中国的英语作为外语学习者100人。结果显示中国的英语作为外语学习者使用最多的学习策略是补偿策略（compensation strategies），使用最少的是记忆策略（memory strategies）；而澳大利亚的汉语作为外语学习者使用最多的学习策略是社会策略（social strategies），使用最少的是情感策略（affective strategies）。就性别因素而言，澳大利亚的汉语作为外语女性学习者比男性学习者使用的学习策略稍微多一些，但是中国的英语作为外语学习者男女所使用的学习策略没有差别。语言学习策略量表中的六类学习策略加在一起总体来看，学习者外语水平的高低没有影响学习策略的使用。六类学习策略一一单独分析来看，有些类别的使用受外语水平高低的影响。文中讨论了研究结果对于教学的种种启示。本文的突出贡献在于（1）在语言学习策略研究中，学习者母语与目标语之间的类别差异首次得到重视并在研究设计中得以考虑；（2）澄清亚洲学习者（本文的中国学习者）使用记忆策略（memory strategies）多还是少的问题，关键在于比较的对象，与自己使用的其他类别的学习策略比较，记忆策略使用的最少，与其他文化背景的学习者比较，中国学习者使用记忆策略比较多。
Keywords: language learning strategy (LLS); English as a foreign language (EFL); Chinese as a foreign language (CFL)
关键词: 语言学习策略; 英语作为外语; 汉语作为外语
Papers in Chinese
汉语语法的特点是形态少，语法编码主要依靠语序和虚词。本文在强调语序之重要性的基础上，指出决定语序的两个最基本的动因：空间性的 “语义距离象似性” 和时间性、语用性的 “可别度领先象似性”，并对这两个动因的种种引申用法做了初步梳理。这两个动因的广泛存在表明，人类最基本的两个感知范畴，空间感知和时间感知，在语言机制中也发挥了决定性作用。
This paper argues first, as for encoding, word order is more important than morphology. It can be seen that word order is limited by the working memory span. Specifically, a linguistic construction is composed of no more than about 7 (7±2) chunks (a head plus all its direct constituents). This implies that the word order universals are more obvious than that of morphology. The paper then proposes that the human spatial and temporal perceptions regulate word order to a much greater extent than commonly thought. The motivations for word order imposed by the two basic perceptions are the Semantic Distance Iconicity and the Identifiability Precedence Iconicity.
The Semantic Distance Iconicity is described as a construction of orbital layers, similar to the solar system and the atomic structure, where some dependents center on a head, each in its own layer according to their semantic distance to the head. This construction is a kind of deep structure in nature because it is not directly related to the superficial word order, which is essentially a form of performance.
In contrast, the Identifiability Precedence Iconicity is asymmetrical and directly related to the superficial word order. The iconicity can be stated as follows: The easier the referent of a constituent is to be activated in the conversation (i. e. the higher identifiability of the referent is), the earlier the constituent appears in word order. The identifiability is taken in a very wide sense. For example, if both modifiers precede the head noun “horses” in “big white horses”, the unmarked order must be that way, because the size is easier to be perceived than the color by human perception, i. e., the identifiability of the size is higher than that of the color.
The asymmetrical Identifiability Precedence Iconicity is more complex than the symmetrical Semantic Distance Iconicity. The procedure from the former to the latter in word order analyses is consistent with the acquisition sequence from the spatial to temporal perceptions in human perception development.
The major part of the paper describes and analyses the various realizations of the two general iconicities. The realizations of the Semantic Distance Iconicity includes the Relator Principle, the Principle of Head Proximity, Dependency-length Minimization and many more. The realizations of the Identifiability Precedence Iconicity include seven realizations, including Natural Information Packaging and the whole-part ordering principle.
关键词: 空间感知; 语义距离; 时间感知; 可别度领先; 无标记自然引申
Keywords: spatial perception; semantic distance; temporal perception; identifiability precedence; default extension
本文以 735 个高频动词为对象考察现代汉语动词句完句形式。通过对动词句位 “直接成句” 和动词句位 “完句形式成句” 两种情况的考察，得出 “动词句位成句规则”：自足小句可分为过程句和非过程句。当句法配置对句位中除动词外的其他成分无特殊要求时，非过程句的实现主要决定于动词的意志类型：由自主动词和非自主属性动词形成的句位可直接成句；由非自主变化动词形成的句位不能直接成句。过程句的实现主要决定于动词内部过程结构：无论自主动词、非自主属性动词还是非自主变化动词，其句位均不能直接成句，它们都需要使用完句形式；使用什么样的完句形式则取决于动词内部过程结构。文章还对由非自主属性动词和自主动词形成的非过程句分别进行了分类考察并讨论了七种完句形式的作用范围。
This paper takes 735 high-frequency verbs as objects to investigate sentence-completing forms of verbal sentences in Modern Chinese. We investigate both verbal synctemes being sentences directly and verbal synctemes being sentences with sentence-completing forms, and derive the following rule:
The self-sufficient sentences can be divided into bounded and unbounded sentences.
The implementation of unbounded sentences mainly depends on the will-type of verbs: those verbal synctemes composed by volitional verbs or property verbs of non-volitional can be sentences directly; while those verbal synctemes composed by transitional verbs of non-volitional cannot be. The implementation of bounded sentences mainly depends on verbs representing course of event: volitional verbs, property verbs or transitional verbs of non-volitional, its synctemes cannot be sentences directly; they all need sentence-completing forms, as to which kind of sentence-completing forms depends on the internal structure of verbs representing course of event.
We also discuss unbounded sentences composed of property verbs of non-volitional and volitional verbs respectively. Unbounded sentences composed of property verbs of non-volitional include two types: one represents people's perception and mental state, which can be inserted by a degree adverb such as “hen/youdianr” in front of the verb or in front of the adjective object after the verb; the other represents attribute of the persons or things, which cannot be inserted by a degree adverb in front of the verb or in front of the adjective object after the verb. Unbounded sentences composed of volitional verbs all can represent volitive; based on this, there are two small classes which can represent other meaning. The one means a person or organization engaged in a professional, with the transformation “NP1 V2 NP2。→ NP1 shi/bushi V2 NP2de。”; and the other represents some habits of a person, with the transformation “NP1 V2 NP2。→ NP1 pingchang shi / pingchang shi bu V2 NP2 de。”
At last we also discuss the seven other forms: volitive auxiliaries, the modal particle “le2”, the auxiliary word “guo”, the temporal adverb “zai / zhengzai”, the temporal adverb “zhujian / jianjian / jianci” and “le1” in the form of collocation, the preposition “ba”, and the topicalization. The first five forms are adding form, and the latter two are shifting form. These forms all have their own using range, including the modal particle “le2” the most widely used.
关键词: 完句形式; 过程句; 非过程句; 自主动词; 非自主动词
Keywords: sentence-completing form; bounded sentence; unbounded sentence; volitional verb; non-volitional verb
My research aims to enhance the reading comprehension skills of students learning Chinese language in Vietnam and help them to improve their use and understanding of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary by knowing Chinese vocabulary embedded in Vietnamese language. To achieve my goal, I conducted survey research of university graduate students from Vietnam. The survey found that the students learning Chinese had difficulty in reading comprehension and that Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary influences their understanding of Chinese language. The findings of the survey show the influences of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. Students having background knowledge of Chinese vocabulary can easily understand and learn Chinese language. The results demonstrate that guidance and information of root words of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary can be good way to teach Chinese language students in Vietnam.
The content of this paper is as follows. First, I determine some Chinese language links which relate to Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. I collected linguistic research about Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. I then research focused my study on the basis of prior findings, and thus contributed to the development of linguistic research in Vietnam as well as internationally. In all it was found that Vietnamese students exhibit better reading comprehension with explanation of Chinese language focused on roots and links to Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. Following this method of instruction, a specific model of teaching can be developed for students in Vietnam. Furthermore, understanding language increases understanding of culture, and boosts cultural ties. Therefore, this research work will not only increase the level of understanding of Chinese language but also will increase historic cultural links between China and Vietnam, the two close neighbors.
关键词: 汉越词; 越南学生; 汉语阅读; 偏误; 教学对策
Keywords: Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary; Chinese vocabulary; Reading comprehension; teaching strategies