Volume10 Issue 1 (2021)

Situation-bound utterances in Chinese as a foreign language: the effectiveness of the identification task
Sergio Conti, Carmen Lepadat
Page range: 1-29
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the identification task on the retention of situation-bound utterances (SBUs) in Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The participants were Italian CFL learners with different lengths of learning experience, divided into an experimental and a control group. The target SBUs were selected by means of a discourse completion questionnaire previously submitted to Italian and Chinese native speakers and Italian CFL learners. During the treatment, the experimental group was provided with six communicative functions and was asked to identify the corresponding SBUs from eight short dialogues. Subsequently, a posttest was administered to both the experimental and the control groups. Overall, the statistical analysis of the test results suggests a significant effect of the task on the participants’ ability to recall the target SBUs, both from an immediate and a longitudinal perspective. However, the data also suggest that, while the participants’ length of learning experience and minor linguistic or cultural specificities of the target formulae did not significantly influence the effectiveness of this specific vocabulary learning task, the presence vs. absence of the SBUs in either the L1 or the L2 might be a crucial factor for their successful recall.

CFL learners’ Mandarin syllable-tone word production: effects of task and prior phonological and lexical learning
Jiang Liu, Seth Wiener
Page range: 31-52
This study examined beginner-level Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners’ production of newly learned words in an image naming and pinyin-reading task. Fifteen L1-English CFL learners learned 10 tonal monosyllabic minimal pairs (e.g., shu1 and shu3 ) in a three-day sound-image word learning experiment. Ten of the 20 words were homophonous with previously learned words (e.g., participants already knew that shu1 means ‘book’), while the other 10 were not (e.g., no shu3 words had been learned). Ten of the 20 words had frequent phonology participants were familiar with (e.g., shi is a high token frequency syllable), while the other 10 had infrequent phonology (e.g., ku is a low token frequency syllable). On the last day of learning, participants performed an image naming task followed by a pinyin-reading task. The recoded word tokens from both tasks were then played to 10 native Chinese speakers who were asked to transcribe the words in pinyin. The results showed that overall word production in the pinyin-reading task was more accurate than image naming. The pinyin-reading advantage was robust, but homophone status and syllable token frequency also interacted with task type: learners produced syllables with high token frequency but without homophones equally well in the pinyin-reading and naming tasks. These results suggest phonological encoding in long-term memory based on pinyin orthography can be affected by learners’ prior phonological and lexical knowledge. Pedagogical applications and limitations of the study are discussed, as well.

Input enhancement improved L2 learners’ production of Chinese classifiers
Hengshuang Liu, Hongyan Hao
Page range: 53-73
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of input enhancement on L2 Chinese classifier learning. Two parallel groups of preliminary-level international participants and one group of Chinese native participants were recruited, and the three groups were matched in Chinese writing experience and group size ( n = 28). One group of international participants was randomly selected as the experimental group; they read a classifier-enhanced text for 10 min before performing a writing task. The other international group and the native group served as the L2-learner control group and the L1-learner control group, respectively. These two control groups performed the writing task without text reading. Results showed that likely due to the frequent use of 个/ge4/ and the extensive use of novel classifiers, a greater variety of classifiers were used by the experimental group at a greater frequency as compared with the two control groups. However, given the observation that the experimental group tended to avoid using complex classifier forms and similar classifiers, future CSL instruction is suggested to aim for quality acquisition through long-term application of input enhancement integrated with explicit explanation on a language-use basis. This study furthers our understanding of how input enhancement is applicable to the acquisition of a logographic second language.

周 妘珊, 蕭 惠貞
Page range: 75-99
提 要 本文旨在探究漢語母語者閱讀由不同因果關聯以及語意關聯所組成之連貫句對時, 連貫關係作用於句對處理之影響。整個實驗透過 E-Prime 軟體進行, 調查母語者閱讀不同句對時, 其反應在連貫性評估、目標句閱讀時間以及目標句回憶表現的情況與差異。研究結果發現, 首先, 當因果關聯的連貫關係高, 受試者認為該句對較有連貫性, 語意關聯亦是如此。第二, 因果關聯高的句對, 其目標句閱讀時間較短;語意關聯的效果僅在高因果時, 使高語意的目標句閱讀時間較低語意來得快。第三, 受試者閱讀因果關聯和語意關聯皆高的句對時, 其目標句回憶表現較佳。

汉语国际教育专业硕士语法教学能力评价: 基于对五位汉硕生趋向补语教学视频的剖析
王 梦玲, 胡 方芳, 刘 运同
Page range: 101-130
提要 为了准确描述汉语国际教育硕士生语法教学能力的发展, 本文以同济大学汉语国际教育专业五位研究生为研究对象, 录制他们教授简单趋向补语的教学视频进行剖析。研究发现, 在导入环节, 导入情境基本合理, 但导入内容过多。在讲解环节, 句法格式基本准确, 但语义讲解不充分, 语用、语境讲解不够全面。在语法点操练环节, 缺少交际性练习, 层次性不足。研究基于硕士生的真实教学活动, 为汉语国际教育硕士教学能力的培养提供有价值的信息。

香港大专生普通话学习中“了”的偏误分析: 对体习得普遍趋势和多语教学的启示
姚 水英
Page range: 131-154
提 要 自1997年以来, 香港地区的普通话教育推广得到了极大的发展。不过, 鉴于多方面的限制和原因, 香港学生的所说所写还是无可避免地带着明显的“港式中文”的特点。本文详细分析了香港大专学生普通话学习过程中各种“了”的偏误行为, 包括不需用“了”而误用“了”、该用“了”而未用“了”、“无时态标记句”、与“有”的误用, 离合词中错用“了”等各种情况, 发现以粤语为母语的香港学生在习得普通话“了”时, 主要表现为体标记不足 (underuse) 的错误, 迥异于其他汉语为二语习得者的体标记泛化(overuse)的常见错误。不仅如此, 我们还发现在“两文三语”或者三语 (trilingual)环境下香港学生对于“了”的各种偏误主要是受了学生课堂强势语言英语的“语际迁移”(language transfer) 所致, 而非受学生的母语和最常用的生活用语 — 粤语的影响, 印证了多语习得中强大的“第二语言地位因素假设” (the L2 status factor hypothesis) 在香港学生的三语习得过程中同样存在。这一有趣的现象无疑为多语环境下的语言教学带来了启示。