Volume10 Issue 2 (2021)

Locative phrase and descriptive discourse in L2 Chinese
Arnaud Arslangul, Marzena Watorek
Page range: 155-182
This study examines the way in which French-speaking learners of L2 Chinese construct a type of discourse called static spatial description . It involves the analysis of an oral corpus collected from two groups of native speakers of Chinese and French, and two groups of learners of L2 Chinese at two proficiency levels (low and intermediate). The data collected consist of the description of a poster. The results show that linguistic devices used in Chinese and French to encode the locative phrase and its syntactic functions have an impact on the presence and placement of the locative in utterances encoding spatial localization. These properties in turn influence the way in which the informational content develops across the utterances in the discourse. There is a clear development of proficiency between the two L2 groups. However, intermediate learners are not yet able to organize information on the discourse level like native Chinese speakers do.

Lexical richness development in Chinese second language writing: empirical research based on Cambodian Chinese learners
Huan Zhang
Page range: 183-206
This study investigates the developmental features of lexical richness in Chinese compositions by Cambodian native speakers ( n = 40) and the relationship between lexical richness and writing quality in Chinese Second Language (CSL) writing from three dimensions of lexical variation, lexical sophistication and lexical error rate.The results show that with the improvement of Chinese level, there are notable increases in lexical variation ( p = 0.000 < 0.05) and lexical sophistication ( p = 0.000 < 0.05). As for lexical errors, the overall lexical error rate is decreasing. Among which, the form error rate is decreasing obviously ( p = 0.000 < 0.05), while the usage error rate is increasing, but not significantly ( p = 0.039 > 0.005). Multiple regression analysis shows that lexical sophistication and lexical error rate are more closely related to CSL writing quality, which can predict writing quality well, while lexical variation has less impact on writing quality.

A systematic review of pedagogical research on teaching Chinese as a foreign language in the United States – from 1960 to 2020
Shenglan Zhang
Page range: 207-238
Since the 1960s, research on Chinese language teaching and learning has developed gradually, so it is worthwhile to synthesize the research results and examine trends and changes. A literature review shows that research has been done to synthesize research findings regarding Chinese language acquisition, but no review of the research studies have been done examining Chinese language pedagogy. This study investigates the research trends in Chinese language pedagogy in the U.S. by analyzing 122 empirical studies published in 25 peer-reviewed journals. These articles were identified through an exhaustive search using multiple databases and methods. The articles were cross analyzed in terms of research topics, language learning settings, methodological approaches, theoretical perspectives, and types of learners that were studied. The analysis found that the topics studied in pedagogical research have become increasingly diversified, and that many of the studies used SLA theories, cognitive theories, and multimedia theories as support for their research designs. Almost half of the studies used technology as part of their pedagogical method. The data also revealed that more research was done with beginning-level learners than advanced learners, and that most of the studies used qualitative data. Analysis of the data highlights the need for more research using Action Research and Design-Based Research methods and reveals a need for all future research to use theoretical support for the research designs. This article concludes by suggesting aspects of Chinese pedagogy that could benefit from further research.

柳 燕梅
Page range: 239-263
提 要 本文对 “了” 的本体研究成果进行梳理总结, 首先, 把句末“了”和词尾“了”都归于体助词。两个“了”代表着事件、动作内部动态发展过程“体”中的两个端点: 发生起点(句末“了”)和完成结点(词尾“了”), 在此语法意义基础上探讨了两个“了”的句法条件和语用规则。其次, 通过对比时和体、汉语与英语时体系统的不同, 对汉语的时态提出了“已然”和“未然”两种时态隐性表达的假设。并根据汉语的不同体阶段构拟了汉语体系统的模型, 以图表方式总结汉语体系统中各个体助词的语法意义、句法条件和语用规则。然后, 基于“最近发展区”的教学理论, 提出在对外汉语教学中使用体系统的模型辅助体助词的教学, 以词尾“了”的教学举例来示范说明使用体模型的教学步骤和活动, 帮助学生对汉语语法的体系统全景有一个清晰的认识和了解。最后, 本文建议开展对“了”教学的不同尝试和实验, 探讨解决汉语语法教学中这一难点的有效方法和途径。

蕭 惠貞, 魏 吟玲
Page range: 265-290
提要 漢語指示動詞「來」與「過來」皆表示移動主體朝向指示中心之移動 (齊滬揚,1996),反映說話者與移動主體之間的參照關係,但兩者存在細微的差異。據此, 本文旨在考察移動事件中「來」與「過來」各別側重的認知概念, 以釐清兩個動詞所指涉的移動事件有何異同。透過語料庫分析研究與漢語母語者實證調查,本研究結果顯示:「來」與「過來」分別突顯不同的認知概念,「來」強化終點參照, 弱化路徑概念, 可用於描述較抽象的移動事件; 相較之下, 「過來」則突顯過程路徑, 多用於表示具體移動路徑的移動事件。然而, 由於「過來」受限於強化過程路徑的概念,無法用於抽象移動事件中,因此「來」的使用範圍較「過來」廣。

劉 德馨, 郭 庭安, 大槻 和也, 葉 姵妤, 劉 儀君
Page range: 291-318
提要 華語中的進行貌「在」和持續貌「著」, 在語意上都含有持續的意思, 這種語意特徵一直以來對日籍的華語學習者造成很大的困擾。對日籍華語學習者而言, 日語中表示持續貌的「ている teiru」, 除了可以對應華語進行貌「在」、持續貌「著」, 還能對應華語表達狀態改變的「了」。一對多的對應形式, 使日籍華語學習者在分辨華語動貌標記時, 出現很大的困難。本研究採用雙元理論 (The Two-Component Theory, Smith, Carlota S. 1997. The parameter of aspect . The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands) 作為中日動貌對比分析之理論框架, 討論華語和日語敘事觀點的差異, 以量化和質化分析並行之方式, 檢視10位中級和高級日籍學習者之口語語料, 並與4位母語人士的口語產出進行對比分析, 以探討學習者在使用華語敘事時動貌標記的使用, 以及母語負遷移的影響。研究發現, 學習者的動貌標記偏誤並非源於對動詞語義所蘊含的事件結構認識不清, 而是因為「ている teiru」可以對應到華語的「在」、「著」和「了」, 再加上缺乏前後景的概念而導致偏誤, 因此會有誤代和遺漏的情況發生, 此種狀況在連動句最為明顯。