Volume12 Issue 1 (2023)

Null subject acquisition in L2 Chinese speakers: a case study on English L1 speakers
Marco Casentini, Mara Frascarelli, Giorgio Carella
Page range: 1-36
This article investigates the acquisition of null subjects (henceforth NSs) in (radical pro-drop) Chinese by learners whose native language is (non-pro-drop) English – henceforth ELs – working within the ‘topic chain’ information-structural approach. Our main goal is to verify whether a learner’s proficiency level can have an impact on the interpretation and acceptability of embedded NSs when more than one head is proposed for the relevant topic chain in different structural contexts (i.e., complements of bridge and factive verbs). The results of a pilot experimental test suggest that the requirement for a minimal overt link (MOLC) in the relevant chain plays an important role for ELs with a lower proficiency level. Conversely, MOLC restrictions do not affect ELs with a higher proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that ELs can correctly distinguish between complements of bridge and factive verbs already at an HSK 3 level. As for interpretation, results suggest that contextual information cannot supersede structural constraints for ELs. However, since a clash with contextual information seems to not affect acceptability for ELs, contrary to Chinese Native Speakers, we propose that even HSK 5 students have not fully acquired the competence for managing NSs in a radical language such as Chinese.

Do learners use different topical progression patterns in L2 Chinese argumentative spoken and written discourse?
Jianling Liao
Page range: 37-64
The current study examines how L2 Chinese learners develop their topics in spoken and written discourse. Currently, researchers have mainly analyzed topical progression features in written texts. Topical progression in speech is rarely examined. We know little about whether learners may advance their topics differently in spoken and written discourse. The current study investigates how advanced Chinese learners apply topical progressions, such as parallel or sequential progression, in argumentative spoken and written discourse, respectively. The study also examines how various topical progressions may relate to the holistic qualities of spoken and written discourse. Topical progression features were analyzed using the Topical Structure Analysis framework. The results showed significant differences in the use of new sequential and related sequential progressions between the two types of discourse. The case study analysis results revealed a multi- Z and single- Z topical movement pattern for higher-score and lower-score performances, respectively.

How do the component skills affect Chinese FL reading comprehension? A study based on ridge regression analysis
Kai Zhong, Ling Yann Wong, Mei Fung Yong, Boon Sim Ng
Page range: 65-89
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reading components (including Chinese character knowledge, morphological knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge, and lexical inference) on the reading comprehension of 44 Malaysian child learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). Measures of Chinese character knowledge, morphological knowledge, receptive vocabulary, vocabulary synonym, lexical inference, word order, grammatical judgment, and reading comprehension were used. Drawing upon ridge regression, the study found that grammar knowledge (measured by word order and grammatical judgment) had the largest effect on reading comprehension, followed by morphological knowledge and vocabulary knowledge (measured by receptive vocabulary and vocabulary synonym). Lexical inference and Chinese character knowledge had the least effects on reading comprehension. The findings of the study are discussed with pedagogical implications and future research suggestions.

Yun-Han Wang, Hsuan-Yun Lin, Huichen S. Hsiao
Page range: 91-124
提要 「送」作為與漢語雙及物構式共現頻率最高的典型動詞之一,使用頻率高,且可轉換於多種雙及物構式間(Zhang, Bojiang (張伯江). 1999. Xiandai Hanyu de shuanjiwu jiegoushi. 現代漢語的雙及物結構式 [Ditransitive constructions in modern Chinese]. Zhongguo yuwen. 《中國語文》 [Studies of the Chinese Language] 1999(3). 175–184),亦是學習者較快習得的動詞(Liu, Feng-Hsi. 2006. Dative constructions in Chinese. Language and Linguistics 7(4). 863–904; Wang, Hongwei (王紅衛). 2017. Hanyu shuangjiwu goushi he dongci guanliandu de shizheng yanjiu. 漢語雙及物構式和動詞關聯度的實證研究 [An empirical study on the association of ditransitive constructions and verbs in Mandarin]. Waiyu yanjiu. 《外語研究》 [Foreign Language Research] 2017(4). 22–26)。相較於其他動詞,「送」之句式使用更適合作為了解動詞語義偏好和新舊信息原則對構式選擇影響的材料。故,本文旨在探究日籍學習者使用「送」作為雙及物構式之主要動詞時的表現。先探究日籍學習者與漢語母語者使用動詞「送」時,其構式與動詞義的互動(interact)和信息結構影響其構式分佈有何異同,再確認「送」與其他雙及物動詞是否具相似表現。本研究結合了日籍學習者及漢語母語者實驗語料的表現、輔以母語者語料庫調查,結果發現:(1)在構式偏好上,使用「送」為構式動詞時,學習者偏好 VgeiDO ,而母語者偏好 DO ;另外,在學習者實驗結果中,可轉換於所有雙及物構式的動詞皆偏好 geiNVN ,而「送」額外展現出 VgeiDO 的構式偏好。(2) 在信息結構上,學習者和母語者使用動詞「送」時,學習者符合新舊信息原則之選擇比例較高;動詞「送」與其他雙及物動詞相比,其表現符合新舊信息原則的比例則相對高於其他雙及物動詞。總體而言,日籍學習者和漢語母語者對「送」的構式偏好不同,相較於母語者,日籍學習者使用「送」時偏好 VgeiDO 及 geiNVN 句,且和其他雙及物動詞相比,「送」更偏好 VgeiDO 句。另,學習者使用動詞「送」時,受新舊信息原則影響較母語者大,此現象推論和日語語序相關。

Ya-Ching Huang, Te-Hsin Liu
Page range: 125-150
提要 本研究針對華語單音節詞和雙音節詞的一聲(陰平)和四聲(去聲),對華語中級程度的 25 位越南學生進行聲調偏誤調查,並嘗試分析出系統性偏誤模式。前人研究多僅考察「發音」、「聽辨」偏誤,本研究加入「記憶」偏誤調查,用以排除「發音」偏誤中的「記憶」偏誤因素。由調查結果推論:前人研究對於越南學生發音和聽辨能力孰優孰劣之不同的研究結果,可能與研究測得的發音偏誤是否牽涉記憶偏誤因素有關。本研究調查發現:聲調「記憶」部分的偏誤率最高,其次為「聽辨」,再其次為「發音」,三者偏誤率之間皆達到統計上之顯著相關。「聽辨」影響「記憶」,「記憶」又進而影響「發音」,三者息息相關。偏誤模式方面,「聽辨」和「記憶」的模式高度一致,皆為一聲偏誤率最高,四聲次之,一聲或四聲居雙音節詞前字時,偏誤率高於居後字。「發音」則是四聲偏誤率最高,一聲次之,四聲居雙音節詞前字時,偏誤率比居後字高,但一聲居前字時,偏誤率比居後字低。

Lian Tao
Page range: 151-172
提要 “《国际中文教育中文水平等级标准·手写汉字表》修订案” (以下简称 “修订案”) 是对《国际中文教育中文水平等级标准·手写汉字表》 (以下简称《手写汉字表》) 的修订提案。本文阐说 “修订案” 提出的缘由、 “修订案” 编制的原则和方法、以及 “修订案” 一到八级手写汉字表的概况, 最后是 “修订案” 和《手写汉字表》的简要对比。 “修订案” 本身则作为 “附录” 列于文末。