Volume11 Issue 1 (2022)
Factors affecting English-speaking learners’ acquisition of Chinese relative clauses with demonstrative classifier phrases
Hui-Ming Lois Du, Chun-Yin Doris Chen, Fang-Yen Hsieh
Page range: 1-31
The current empirical research aimed to investigate native English-speaking learners’ acquisition of Chinese relative clauses (RCs) by conducting two studies. Study I explored the participants’ performance on gapped and gapless relative clauses (RCs) and their interpretation of demonstrative classifier (DCL)-relative clauses. Study II further investigated the participants’ interpretation of DCL-first and DCL-second RCs and discussed contextual effect. Different tasks were designed in the two studies: a sentence-unscrambling (SU) task and an acceptability judgement (AJ) task in Study I; and an interpretation (IT) task in Study II. A total of 20 L2 learners and 20 native speakers of Mandarin participated in our research. The overall results obtained from Study I revealed that gapped RCs were easier to produce and accept than gapless RCs, and learner performance was influenced by DCL position. Moreover, the L2 learners’ L1 knowledge was found to affect their production, but the task effect was not significant. In Study II, DCL-first RCs were found to be as difficult as DCL-second RCs for the L2 learners to interpret. The non-restrictive and restrictive interpretations of DCL-first RCs were found to be much more comprehensible. Finally, the L2 learners’ interpretation of RCs having DCL phrases in different positions showed a tendency of a contextual effect.
The effects of L1, task, and classifier type in Chinese-L2 learners’ use of classifiers
Jiahuan Zhang, Ksenia Gnevsheva
Page range: 33-59
This study explores three potential factors that influence Chinese L2 learners’ classifier use in a classroom setting: L1 background, task, and classifier type. We developed a picture-prompted test, including composition, free cloze, and multiple-choice cloze questions to elicit the use of classifiers. Participants were 50 Chinese L2 learners from Arabic, English, and Japanese L1 backgrounds. Although Japanese L1 participants performed numerically better than their Arabic and English counterparts, statistical analysis suggests that L1 was not a significant predictor of test performance. The composition task was shown to be conducive to the use of test-taking strategies, and it revealed a higher classifier accuracy than the more constrained multiple-choice task. Meanwhile, there was an interaction between L1 and task, suggesting that L1 influence may be conditioned by task type. Moreover, our logistic model predicts different levels of accuracy for classifier use by type, which potentially suggests a developmental path of acquiring classifiers licensed by the most prominent noun feature they are associated with, with shape being the earliest, followed by animate, inanimate, and concept.
Pedagogical issues related to the adverb dou [都] in Mandarin Chinese
Page range: 61-90
The semantic and syntactic properties of the adverb dou ‘both/all’ in Mandarin Chinese have been extensively discussed. However, due to the increasing number of Chinese as a Second (CSL) learners, many researchers have recently begun conducting studies that address language learners’ acquisition of this adverb. In this study, I more widely investigate the usages of dou . More specifically, I examine how dou is presented in a CSL textbook and conduct a corpus study on the use of dou in various types of discourses. The main goal is to investigate whether or not there is a gap between the textbook and the corpus data. The overall results suggest that the focus of the textbook is dissimilar to the results of the data. To fill the gap, I provide several class materials and classroom activities involving the morphosyntax, semantics, and pragmatics of dou that can facilitate CSL learners’ acquisition.
(Hongcheng Ma), (Wen Xiong), (Jiaxin Zhao)
Page range: 91-116
提要 温岭方言和普通话一样, 感叹范畴的表达有词汇、语法和语用手段, 其中语法手段是本质的和必有的。词汇手段主要是使用副词、代词和叹词作感叹标记;语法手段表现为添加语气词或零形式、重复句子和倒装语序；语用手段则是使用其他句类形式来表达感叹。温岭方言和普通话感叹范畴标记手段的主要差异表现在具体标记的形式、线性顺序等方面。从跨语言角度来看, 温岭方言、普通话与日语、韩语都属于wh-词原位语言, 感叹表达主要使用添加手段,但在有疑问代词或副词作感叹标记时表达方式则会有所不同。温岭方言中后置副词“显”作状语成分, 表达感叹范畴时有着至少三种不同于普通话语序的句式。“显”的具体表现与其句法特点、来源和演变有关.
(Zhiyuan Ye) 叶智媛, (Yuntong Liu) 刘运同
Page range: 117-146
提 要 本研究采用会话分析方法从微观层面探讨海外汉语课堂上的语码转换使用。研究以话轮为出发点, 从话轮 (Turn) 内部、话轮之间两个角度对汉语志愿者教师在西班牙中学三语环境下的课堂语码转换进行分析描述, 并概括课堂语码转换的功能。研究发现, 在海外三语教学环境下, 教师的语码转换类别呈现出一定的规律, 语码转换的功能有教学功能、课堂管理功能和人际功能。在海外汉语教学中语码转换是教师重要的教学资源
泰國學習者之漢語 “給” 字句偏誤分析
(Yu-Chin Li) 李郁錦, (Manlike Kankakee) 康茉莉
Page range: 147-176
提要 本文以泰國學生學習漢語「給」字句為例, 探討學習者真實產生之偏誤; 其具體和抽象兼具的語法意義與複雜的用法, 使得「給」字句成為泰國學生學習中主要的難點之一。本文的主要分為二部分: 首先, 針對漢泰二語的「給」字句本體三層次分析及對比。其次, 為克服語料取得的困難及取得足夠的樣本, 採用兩大學習者語料庫: TOCFL 學習者語料庫及 HSK 動態作文語料庫, 從四種偏誤分別剖析。本研究運用語言對比分析法和偏誤分析法及中介語研究, 對漢泰兩種語言中「給」字句進行了多角度、多層面的探究、分析與解讀, 期能幫助教師在課堂上更加了解泰國學生可能產生的中介語現象和學習「給」字句時的需求。