VoluMe 11 Issue 2 (2022)

A two-case study on CSL learners’ agency in classroom settings from the perspective of language socialization
Shaoqian Luo, Zhoucong Si
Page range: 177-208
Examining the learner agency expressed by two learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL), the current two-case study was conducted from the perspective of language socialization. Qualitative data have been collected through classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis reveals that the two cases in the current study exhibited eight forms of learner agency in their CSL learning, including self-determination, self-motivation, self-regulation, participation, cooperation, negotiation, hesitancy and resistance. In addition, learner agency observed in the two cases is constantly mediated by multiple sociocultural factors in specific contexts of CSL socialization. The results of the current study imply the socioculturally mediated essence of learner agency and suggest that learner agency develops through a temporal course and is constrained by social structures.

Chinese literacy learning by immigrant learners
Norbert Francis, Thi-Nham Le
Page range: 209-231
For both second and foreign language students, mastery of the Chinese writing system typically presents itself as a special learning challenge. This report begins with a summary of relevant aspects of an exploratory study of East Asian immigrant language learners. It serves to set the stage for a discussion of theoretical problems that hopefully will lead to new directions in research focused on second language (L2) learners of Chinese in general. In particular, the discussion will highlight the circumstances of that population of learners who come to the task of L2 Chinese literacy as already literate in their first language. In this regard, what is the role of language awareness in learning to read and write, in particular regarding the link between characters and their pronunciation? The participants in the study were young adult immigrants from Vietnam who today look back on their experience of language learning in the host country over the course of the last 20 years.

How do L1 Chinese raters process the L2 Chinese speech signal at the sentence level with respect to accentedness, comprehensibility and intelligibility?
Robert Neal
Page range: 233-288
Set within the context of teaching and learning Chinese at two secondary schools in the North of England and adopting a case study research design, the aim of this study was to develop research-informed insights into the nature of the pronunciation challenges facing beginner learners of Chinese. Data collection activities included recording the spoken Chinese of 20 L2 learners during a read-aloud task and a question-answer activity. Forty L1 raters were subsequently interviewed as they rated and transcribed the learners’ randomized speech samples. Distinguishing between the key constructs of accentedness, comprehensibility and intelligibility, it was found that heavily accented tones did not necessarily lead to lower levels of comprehensibility and intelligibility. Furthermore, many intelligibility breakdowns – i.e. when raters failed to correctly transcribe the learners’ intended utterances – could be traced to problems with individual words which usually implicated segmental sounds as well as tone. Findings are interpreted in terms of indicating a need for more nuanced classroom priorities aimed at the promotion of intelligible speech as opposed to an unrealistic focus on developing a native-like accent.

(Aejung Kim) 金爱情, (Yibin Liu) 刘翼斌, (Lizhen Peng) 彭利贞
Page range: 289-311
提要 道义情态内部存在礼貌程度上的差异。为了不威胁面子, 言者表达道义情态时, 会设法使用间接手段, 以提高礼貌的程度。本文讨论了使指令显得间接的三类表现手段: (一) 道义情态来源的客观化。表现为选择 “得 (děi)”、“不得不” 表示的源于客观的道义情态, 或使用使道义情态客观化的 “有M” 或 “有VP的M” 等形式。 (二) 道义情态的低量级化。在威胁面子的语境中, 言者说[许可]而隐含[必要], 说[免除]而隐含[禁止]。 (三) 非道义情态的道义情态化。言者表达对事件整体的评价、表达事件发生的时间等要素的合适性、表示事件成真的[能力]、[勇气]或[条件], 等等, 但真正的目的是以这些原来表达非道义情态的语言形式, 间接地表达道义情态。

现代汉语的主观量标记 “基本”
(Chengfeng Liu) 刘承峰, (Ying Huang) 黄颖
Page range: 313-334
提 要 现代汉语副词 “基本” 表示量,其语义 “大体上” 基于客观标准这一 “参照量”,量化句子中表 “全量” 的谓词性成分、 “都” 和其前名词性成分,并表征现实量与预期量、标准量之间的关系。 “基本” 可限定客观量,也可限定主观量:前者仅指现实量接近标准 “参照量”; 后者指现实量未达到标准 “参照量”,但言者认为其超过了 “预期量”; 言者对现实量做积极评价,是主观大量类。 “基本” 表征主观量的同时,也体现了言者对事件可能性的判断,是一种认识上的不确定。

情态动词 “可以” 的语法教学
(Hanbing Zhang) 张寒冰, (Lidan Liu) 刘莉丹
Page range: 335-360
提 要 “可以” 是现代汉语中典型的多义情态动词,因与其他近义情态动词存在交错关系,成为汉语作为第二语言教学中的一个难点。通过对母语语料的统计发现,“可以”表[许可]义的数量远高于[能力]义,这一方面反映了[许可]义的原型性,一方面也成为安排教学顺序的依据。本文通过确定不可替代用法论证了 “可以” 在语义表现中的 “条件性”,并提炼了相应的句法形式,同时结合中介语语料,对 “可以” 的语法教学提出了相应的建议。